Researchers make a distinction between two types of resistance: genotypic and phenotypic resistance.

Specific mutations are associated with resistance to individual antiretroviral drugs (i.e. M184V is associated with 3TC). Viral strains with drug-specific mutations are said to have genotypic resistance to that drug.

Phenotypic resistance is a measure of the actual impact of resistance on a drug's antiviral effect. If the virus is significantly less susceptible to a drug when actually exposed to it, it is said to have phenotypic resistance to that drug. (Viral 'susceptibility' or 'sensitivity' is the degree to which the virus is suppressed by a drug, i.e., the extent to which that drug is still effective against it.) Resistance is rarely an all-or-nothing phenomenon; different mutations (or combinations of mutations) confer varying degrees of drug resistance, ranging from minimal to very high.

Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap

This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.

NAM’s information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation.